DNA DTC offers a wide range of Research Use Only (RUO) tests utilizing next generation sequencing including the entire exome (at 80x coverage) and the whole genome.
DNA DTC's state-of-the-art automated laboratory and ultra-efficient processes allow us to deliver highly reliable genomic testing at reasonable prices with excellent processing times.
DNA DTC is the RUO division of Gene by Gene and a sister division to Family Tree DNA which pioneered the concept of direct to consumer DNA tests in the field of genetic genealogy in 2000.
The exome contains the functionally important coding regions of the human genome. Exome sequencing selectively targets these portions of the genome and has proven to be efficient and extremely cost-effective method of identifying DNA variants.
In contrast to traditional Sanger sequencing tests that analyze a single gene or small groups of genes at once, exome sequencing has the ability to simultaneously analyze approximately 60 million base pairs, representing 22,000 genes using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Sequencing of the exome can help identify variants that may be the genetic cause of a wide range of traits and conditions. NGS relies on a method that enriches a sample by using DNA capture probes targeted only to the exome portion of the genome. Please note that as a Research Use Only test, the exome does not include any analysis or interpretation.
The technique enriches a sample using a DNA capture method targeted only to the exome portion of the genome.
Please note that DNA DTC provides only raw data in the form of fastq files.
DNA DTC uses the Illumina HiSeq platform for exome testing. For additional technical details, please click here.
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The Illumina Omni Express array is a 12-sample BeadChip belonging to the Next-Gen GWAS Omni family of microarrays designed to provide high sample throughput and comprehensive genomic content. It includes a total of 730,525 genome-wide markers with an average spacing of 4Kb and targets a minor allele frequency of 5% as reported in the HapMap data. This includes SNPs with 10kb of RefSeq genes, nonsynonymous SNPs (NCBI annotated), MHC/ADME SNPs, and sex chromosomes.
Coupled with the Illumina iScan platform, this Industry-standard Assay affords greater than 99% average call rates and greater than 99.9% reproducibility. The Omni Express array also supports copy number variation (CNV) analyses.
The DNA sequence of mtDNA has been determined from a very large number of individuals, and the comparison of those DNA sequences represents a mainstay of phylogenetics, in that it allows biologists to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among species. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and field biology.
This is the highest level mtDNA test possible. Testing covers all 16,569 base pairs which includes HVR1 and HVR2 (Hypervariable regions 1 and 2, also called the control region) and the Coding Region.
The standard limit of detection for heteroplasmies is 20%. However, for some applications this may be too low or too high. At a customer’s request, we can customize the heteroplasmy detection limit, allowing further flexibility in designing a product specifically tailored to meeting your research needs.
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While exome sequencing focuses on the detection of genomic variants in coding regions of the genome, whole genome sequencing also includes non-coding regions and allows a more complete view of an individual’s genetic makeup. DNA DTC provides sample preparation, QC and sequencing. Customers are provided with their raw data as a fastq file. Please note that as a Research Use Only test, the whole genome does not include any analysis or interpretation.
Whether using the high throughput mode of the HiSeq 2000 or the rapid run mode of the HiSeq 2500, DNA DTC can offer experimental flexibility for a wide range of research needs, while providing Industry leading data quality and a cost effective workflow.
IMPORTANT: Please note that whole genomes cannot be run from buccal swabs. Customers must provide DNADTC with a blood sample or DNA extracted from blood. DNADTC does not provide collection kits for blood samples.
Dr. Behar received his degrees from the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
As an M.D. he has dual specialization in Internal Medicine and Critical Care Medicine
in Rambam Medical Center, Haifa Israel. His Ph.D thesis was in the field of Population
Genetics. Dr. Behar's research areas of interest are across the broad range of evolutionary
genomics, ancestry, phylogenetics and translational genomics -- having been the
leading author and co-author of numerous research papers in these areas. His current
primary interest is developing robust, low-priced genetic testing for the general
public that will allow responsible personalized genetic medicine to any individual
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Dr. Shohat is a world renowned expert in medical genetics with 248 original research
articles to his credit. He has co-authored and edited two books, and received numerous
personal awards for his achievements in genetics research. For several decades he
has served as professor of pediatrics and medical genetics at Tel Aviv University
and Director of the Rafael Recanathi institute for Medical Genetics. Dr. Shohat
is a member of the Israeli, American and European Societies of Medical Genetics,
as well as of the National Counseling Committee of the Ministry of Health for OB/GYN
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Dr. Bormans received her Ph.D. in genetics from Texas A&M University where she developed
new STR marker panels for use in plant breeding. As a Research Fellow at the University
of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, she managed three large scale projects
to identify genes related to cardiovascular disease. She is currently focused on
developing efficient methods for large scale genotyping projects using both direct
sequencing and STR analysis.
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Dr. Bauer began work in Clinical Pathology at Loma Linda University Medical Center
and went on to complete a fellowship in Transfusion Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Medical
Center. During this training, he gained valuable experience in clinical laboratory
testing and laboratory administration. Dr. Bauer has been a consulting physician
since 1994 and is certified in Clinical Pathology, Blood Banking and Transfusion
Medicine, as well as being a Tissue Banking specialist. Dr. Bauer currently acts
as CLIA Lab Director for Gene by Gene.
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Dr. Katz is a board certified Anatomic Pathologist and Cytopathologist who is currently
Professor of Pathology, Chief Research Cytopathology, and Director, Image Cytometry
Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston,
Dr. Katz received her medical degree from the University of Witwatersrand Medical
School in Johannesburg, South Africa. She completed a residency in anatomic pathology
and hematopathology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, along with a residency
in anatomic pathology at New England Medical Center Tufts Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
She served fellowships in Laboratory Medicine and Cytopathology at The University
of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston,Texas. Dr. Katz was Chief of Cytopathology
at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1984 until 1998. During that
time she was instrumental in setting up the Quality Assurance and Quality Control
Program for Cytopathology, including gynecological cytopathology. She also instituted
the regulations as required by the CLIA Act of 1988, and has been actively involved
in cervical cytology quality assurance for over 20 years.
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Spencer Wells is an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society and
Frank H. T. Rhodes Class of 1956 Professor at Cornell University. He leads The Genographic
Project, which is collecting and analyzing hundreds of thousands of DNA samples
from people around the world in order to decipher how our ancestors populated the
Wells received his Ph.D. in population genetics from Harvard University and conducted
postdoctoral work at Stanford and Oxford. He has appeared in numerous documentary
films and is the author of three books, The Journey of Man, Deep Ancestry and Pandora's
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With an academic background spanning from Aeronautical Engineering to Political
Sciences, Max Blankfeld found his true vocation after graduating summa cum laude
with a BBA from Fundação Getulio Vargas in Brazil. After moving to Houston, Texas
in 1991, he completed his MBA at Rice University, majoring in Finance, Marketing
Before coming to the United States, Blankfeld held top management positions at publicly
traded companies, where he was responsible for operations and growth strategies.
During his years in the US, he started and managed a company in the area of consumer
products, until he sold it in 2001.
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An entrepreneur and life-long genealogy enthusiast, Mr. Greenspan founded Family
Tree DNA in 2000, the original unit of what went to become Gene by Gene. Prior business
and entrepreneur experience spans photo-imaging/industrial photography and commercial
Real Estate. In a prior career Mr. Greenspan oversaw the conversion of a company
sales force from analog to digital data capture..
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